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编写你的第一个 Django 程序 第5部分

发布者: 三寸日光



Testing our new view

Now you can satisfy yourself that this behaves as expected by firing up the runserver, loading the site in your browser, creating Polls with dates in the past and future, and checking that only those that have been published are listed. You don’t want to have to do that every single time you make any change that might affect this - so let’s also create a test, based on our shell session above.

Add the following to polls/tests.py:

from django.core.urlresolvers import reverse

and we’ll create a factory method to create polls as well as a new test class:

def create_poll(question, days):
    """
    Creates a poll with the given `question` published the given number of
    `days` offset to now (negative for polls published in the past,
    positive for polls that have yet to be published).
    """
    return Poll.objects.create(question=question,
        pub_date=timezone.now() + datetime.timedelta(days=days))

class PollViewTests(TestCase):
    def test_index_view_with_no_polls(self):
        """
        If no polls exist, an appropriate message should be displayed.
        """
        response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
        self.assertEqual(response.status_code, 200)
        self.assertContains(response, "No polls are available.")
        self.assertQuerysetEqual(response.context['latest_poll_list'], [])

    def test_index_view_with_a_past_poll(self):
        """
        Polls with a pub_date in the past should be displayed on the index page.
        """
        create_poll(question="Past poll.", days=-30)
        response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
        self.assertQuerysetEqual(
            response.context['latest_poll_list'],
            ['<Poll: Past poll.>']
        )

    def test_index_view_with_a_future_poll(self):
        """
        Polls with a pub_date in the future should not be displayed on the
        index page.
        """
        create_poll(question="Future poll.", days=30)
        response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
        self.assertContains(response, "No polls are available.", status_code=200)
        self.assertQuerysetEqual(response.context['latest_poll_list'], [])

    def test_index_view_with_future_poll_and_past_poll(self):
        """
        Even if both past and future polls exist, only past polls should be
        displayed.
        """
        create_poll(question="Past poll.", days=-30)
        create_poll(question="Future poll.", days=30)
        response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
        self.assertQuerysetEqual(
            response.context['latest_poll_list'],
            ['<Poll: Past poll.>']
        )

    def test_index_view_with_two_past_polls(self):
        """
        The polls index page may display multiple polls.
        """
        create_poll(question="Past poll 1.", days=-30)
        create_poll(question="Past poll 2.", days=-5)
        response = self.client.get(reverse('polls:index'))
        self.assertQuerysetEqual(
            response.context['latest_poll_list'],
             ['<Poll: Past poll 2.>', '<Poll: Past poll 1.>']
        )

Let’s look at some of these more closely.

First is a poll factory method, create_poll, to take some repetition out of the process of creating polls.

test_index_view_with_no_polls doesn’t create any polls, but checks the message: “No polls are available.” and verifies the latest_poll_list is empty. Note that the django.test.TestCase class provides some additional assertion methods. In these examples, we use assertContains() and assertQuerysetEqual().

In test_index_view_with_a_past_poll, we create a poll and verify that it appears in the list.

In test_index_view_with_a_future_poll, we create a poll with a pub_date in the future. The database is reset for each test method, so the first poll is no longer there, and so again the index shouldn’t have any polls in it.

And so on. In effect, we are using the tests to tell a story of admin input and user experience on the site, and checking that at every state and for every new change in the state of the system, the expected results are published.


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